They also cover very different scenarios. One is talking about ‘brownfield’ development – extending the life of existing fields and brining new reserves online through existing infrastructure. The other is focused on new technologies and challenges in safely exploiting hitherto unreachable reserves.
The common element is that both articles mention chemical injection as a key technology. This is, of course, an area in which Litre Meter has considerable experience.
Over the past year we have shipped a large number of meters to be used subsea, on a variety of chemicals, over a wide range of flows at high pressure and calibrated at specific viscosities. For example, Litre Meter rotary piston flow meters are part of systems used to control the amount of ‘antifreeze’ injected into pipelines at high pressure (430 bar) in subsea gas exploration on fields in the Caspian Sea and the North Sea.
‘Antifreeze’ fluids like methanol are used as thermodynamic inhibitors, which lower the freezing point of gas hydrate. They are injected into pipelines where there is a risk of hydrates (dew) forming then freezing at low temperature.
The antifreeze prevents gas hydrates solidifying as crystals and blocking pipelines – which can result in a costly shutdown and the risk of explosion or unintended release of hydrocarbons into the environment.
Litre Meter has also recently shipped flowmeters for use in chemical injection skids on a number of fields in the Gulf of Mexico and the Persian Gulf off Dubai. These meters are used in the flow measurement of wax dispersants and pour point depressants (PPD) to control their use to a very high tolerance.
Wax dispersants break apart and prevent the reformation of hydrocarbon sludge deposits and improve flow by reducing the viscosity of the fluid. PPDs are used to reduce the viscosity of oil and to maintain flow rate by preventing the build-up of wax crystals at low temperatures.
Sludge deposits are typically composed of varying concentrations of hydrocarbon, asphaltene, paraffin, water and inorganic materials. They are commonly found in storage tanks and vessels, production and transportation pipelines, process systems and hydrocarbon-producing formations where they have an adverse effect on the flow of crude oil from the well head.
Our expertise is nicely summarised in our new chemical injection brochure which highlights the enormous success of the VFF meter over the past few years in solving chemical injection measurement problems around the world.
With 3,000 VFFs in active use on chemical injection Litre Meter has demonstrated a depth of experience and knowledge that is unmatched in the low flow arena. The brochure provides further detail of the VFF range in one eight-page document.